Because women make up half of the world's population, it follows that women play an equally important role in the process of generating economic development. However, no economy can reach its full potential for expansion unless both women and men engage completely in the process.
This year's Women, Business, and the Law conference will examine the impact that the gender imbalance that exists in various professions and fields has. It is the fifth study in a series that is published every two years and measures the legal hurdles that are faced by women all around the globe who participate in economic activities. The analysis makes use of new data across seven indicators, including accessing institutions, using property, obtaining a job, providing incentives to work, going to court, building credit, and protecting women from violence. Additionally, the study expands coverage to 189 economies around the world to demonstrate the difficulties that many women face in their pursuit of economic opportunity.
Women's engagement in the work market has decreased from 52 percent to 49 percent worldwide during the last 30 years, while men's participation has increased to 75 percent. In addition, the likelihood of a woman having a full-time job is one-half that of a man, and those women who do have full-time positions earn up to one-third less than their male colleagues. The truth remains that women in 104 economies are still barred from working in some occupations for no other reason than the fact that they are female. There are no rules against sexual harassment in the workplace in 59 of the world's countries, and in 18 of those economies, husbands have the legal right to forbid their wives from working.
According to the findings of the survey, "Social media movements... have exposed the frequency of sexual harassment and violence in the workplace; but, in many locations, women still do not have any legal redress."
Here is a list of the top 10 professions in which women still cannot work anywhere in the globe.
1. Grinding and Polishing Glass
Women are prohibited by law from working in the glass polishing industry in Argentina.
2. Operating Motor Coaches
Women are not allowed to drive buses in Belarus that have more than 14 passengers.
3. Using Tools
In Guinea, women are prohibited from holding some sorts of hammer-related jobs.
4. Engaging in Skilled Golf Competitions
Muirfield in Scotland, which played home to this year's Open Championship, is one of the several golf clubs in the United Kingdom that is reserved only for male members. Women are permitted to participate in the sport in the capacity of guests or visitors; nevertheless, they are unable to become members of the club, which inhibits many of them from following the sport on a professional level.
In China, women are not allowed to work in mines. According to China's labor rules, working in the mining industry is deemed to be "unsuitable for women," hence the China Mining and Technology University has a strict policy that only allows males to enroll.
6. Operating Large Trucks
In Russia, women are not allowed to work in the trucking industry. In point of fact, they are prohibited from doing 456 occupations by law, which includes anything else that may constitute a risk or hazard (read: captaining ships, woodworking, anything mechanical). In the year 2000, the government established a rule that was supposed to safeguard women's health, but in reality, it only prevents women from working in 38 different economic areas.
7. Wheelbarrowing (in Construction and the Like)
In France, it is against the law for women to engage in labor occupations that require them to carry weights weighing more than 55 pounds, and it is also against the law for women to move freight using a wheelbarrow that weighs more than 99 pounds.
8. Making Available Previously Published Materials
Because of Madagascar's strict moral code, women are not permitted to disseminate printed items such as books, posters, or any other published materials. Because doing so is regarded as "contrary to morals," it is a violation of criminal law and may result in punishment.
9. Fixing Machinery
Lubricating cotton machinery is a job that can only be performed by males in Pakistan. According to the legislation, female workers in a cotton-opener facility are not allowed to actually mend moving elements of a machine.
According to the law, it is forbidden to engage in activities such as "working in the same room as a cotton-opener in a factory; working inside any factory to clean, lubricate, or adjust any part of machinery while that part is in motion; or working between moving parts or between fixed and moving parts of any machinery." Other prohibited activities include "working in the same room as a cotton-opener in a factory."
10. Being Able to Manipulate the Majority of Sticky, Smelly, and Toxic Things
Women are not permitted to work in the United Arab Emirates in any capacity that requires them to handle potentially hazardous materials or substances such as animal droppings, blood, fertilizer, poisonous chemicals, and the like. This implies that they are unable to work in tanneries, lay asphalt, clean or manage facilities that contain this sort of activity, and they also cannot manage facilities that include cleaning these types of facilities.
Discrimination based on a person's gender persists in ninety percent of the world's nations. And despite the fact that women are gaining ground in workplaces all around the globe, a significant number of the obstacles that they confront are still codified in legislation.